JEL classification codes

A. General Economics and Teaching

B. History of Economic Thought, Methodology, and Heterodox Approaches

C. Mathematical and Quantitative Methods

D. Microeconomics

E. Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics

F. International Economics

G. Financial Economics

H. Public Economics

I. Health, Education, and Welfare

J. Labor and Demographic Economics

K. Law and Economics

L. Industrial Organization

M. Business Administration and Business Economics • Marketing • Accounting • Personnel Economics

N. Economic History

O. Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth

P. Economic Systems

Q. Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics • Environmental and Ecological Economics

R. Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics

Y. Miscellaneous Categories

Z. Other Special Topics

A. General Economics and Teaching

A1 General Economics

A10 General

A11 Role of Economics • Role of Economists • Market for Economists

A12 Relation of Economics to Other Disciplines

A13 Relation of Economics to Social Values

A14 Sociology of Economics

A19 Other

A2 Economic Education and Teaching of Economics

A20 General

A21 Pre-college

A22 Undergraduate

A23 Graduate

A29 Other

A3 Collective Works

A30 General

A31 Collected Writings of Individuals

A32 Collective Volumes

A33 Handbooks

A39 Other

B. History of Economic Thought, Methodology, and Heterodox Approaches

B00 General

B1 History of Economic Thought through 1925

B10 General

B11 Preclassical (Ancient, Medieval, Mercantilist, Physiocratic)

B12 Classical (includes Adam Smith)

B13 Neoclassical through 1925 (Austrian, Marshallian, Walrasian, Wicksellian)†

B14 Socialist • Marxist

B15 Historical • Institutional • Evolutionary

B16 Quantitative and Mathematical

B17 International Trade and Finance

B19 Other

B2 History of Economic Thought since 1925

B20 General

B21 Microeconomics

B22 Macroeconomics

B23 Econometrics • Quantitative and Mathematical Studies

B24 Socialist • Marxist • Sraffian

B25 Historical • Institutional • Evolutionary • Austrian • Stockholm School†

B26 Financial Economics

B27 International Trade and Finance

B29 Other

B3 History of Economic Thought: Individuals

B30 General

B31 Individuals

B32 Obituaries

B4 Economic Methodology

B40 General

B41 Economic Methodology

B49 Other

B5 Current Heterodox Approaches

B50 General

B51 Socialist • Marxian • Sraffian

B52 Historical • Institutional • Evolutionary†

B53 Austrian

B54 Feminist Economics

B59 Other

C. Mathematical and Quantitative Methods

C00 General

C01 Econometrics

C02 Mathematical Methods

C1 Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General

C10 General

C11 Bayesian Analysis: General

C12 Hypothesis Testing: General

C13 Estimation: General

C14 Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General

C15 Statistical Simulation Methods: General

C18 Methodological Issues: General

C19 Other

C2 Single Equation Models • Single Variables

C20 General

C21 Cross-Sectional Models • Spatial Models • Treatment Effect Models • Quantile Regressions

C22 Time-Series Models • Dynamic Quantile Regressions • Dynamic Treatment Effect Models • Diffusion Processes

C23 Panel Data Models • Spatio-temporal Models

C24 Truncated and Censored Models • Switching Regression Models • Threshold Regression Models

C25 Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models • Discrete Regressors • Proportions • Probabilities

C26 Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation

C29 Other

C3 Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models • Multiple Variables

C30 General

C31 Cross-Sectional Models • Spatial Models • Treatment Effect Models • Quantile Regressions • Social Interaction Models

C32 Time-Series Models • Dynamic Quantile Regressions • Dynamic Treatment Effect Models • Diffusion Processes • State Space Models

C33 Panel Data Models • Spatio-temporal Models

C34 Truncated and Censored Models • Switching Regression Models

C35 Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models • Discrete Regressors • Proportions

C36 Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation

C38 Classification Methods • Cluster Analysis • Principal Components • Factor Models

C39 Other

C4 Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics

C40 General

C41 Duration Analysis • Optimal Timing Strategies

C43 Index Numbers and Aggregation

C44 Operations Research • Statistical Decision Theory

C45 Neural Networks and Related Topics

C46 Specific Distributions • Specific Statistics

C49 Other

C5 Econometric Modeling

C50 General

C51 Model Construction and Estimation

C52 Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection

C53 Forecasting and Prediction Methods • Simulation Methods

C54 Quantitative Policy Modeling

C55 Large Data Sets: Modeling and Analysis

C57 Econometrics of Games and Auctions

C58 Financial Econometrics

C59 Other

C6 Mathematical Methods • Programming Models • Mathematical and Simulation Modeling

C60 General

C61 Optimization Techniques • Programming Models • Dynamic Analysis

C62 Existence and Stability Conditions of Equilibrium

C63 Computational Techniques • Simulation Modeling

C65 Miscellaneous Mathematical Tools

C67 Input–Output Models

C68 Computable General Equilibrium Models

C69 Other

C7 Game Theory and Bargaining Theory

C70 General

C71 Cooperative Games

C72 Noncooperative Games

C73 Stochastic and Dynamic Games • Evolutionary Games • Repeated Games

C78 Bargaining Theory • Matching Theory

C79 Other

C8 Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology • Computer Programs

C80 General

C81 Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Microeconomic Data • Data Access

C82 Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Macroeconomic Data • Data Access

C83 Survey Methods • Sampling Methods

C87 Econometric Software

C88 Other Computer Software

C89 Other

C9 Design of Experiments

C90 General

C91 Laboratory, Individual Behavior

C92 Laboratory, Group Behavior

C93 Field Experiments

C99 Other

D. Microeconomics

D00 General

D01 Microeconomic Behavior: Underlying Principles

D02 Institutions: Design, Formation, Operations, and Impact

D04 Microeconomic Policy: Formulation, Implementation, and Evaluation

D1 Household Behavior and Family Economics

D10 General

D11 Consumer Economics: Theory

D12 Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis

D13 Household Production and Intrahousehold Allocation

D14 Household Saving • Personal Finance

D15 Intertemporal Household Choice • Life Cycle Models and Saving

D18 Consumer Protection

D19 Other

D2 Production and Organizations

D20 General

D21 Firm Behavior: Theory

D22 Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis

D23 Organizational Behavior • Transaction Costs • Property Rights

D24 Production • Cost • Capital • Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity • Capacity

D25 Intertemporal Firm Choice: Investment, Capacity, and Financing

D29 Other

D3 Distribution

D30 General

D31 Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions

D33 Factor Income Distribution

D39 Other

D4 Market Structure, Pricing, and Design

D40 General

D41 Perfect Competition

D42 Monopoly

D43 Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection

D44 Auctions

D45 Rationing • Licensing

D46 Value Theory

D47 Market Design

D49 Other

D5 General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium

D50 General

D51 Exchange and Production Economies

D52 Incomplete Markets

D53 Financial Markets

D57 Input–Output Tables and Analysis

D58 Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models

D59 Other

D6 Welfare Economics

D60 General

D61 Allocative Efficiency • Cost–Benefit Analysis

D62 Externalities

D63 Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement

D64 Altruism • Philanthropy • Intergenerational Transfers

D69 Other

D7 Analysis of Collective Decision-Making

D70 General

D71 Social Choice • Clubs • Committees • Associations

D72 Political Processes: Rent-Seeking, Lobbying, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior

D73 Bureaucracy • Administrative Processes in Public Organizations • Corruption

D74 Conflict • Conflict Resolution • Alliances • Revolutions

D78 Positive Analysis of Policy Formulation and Implementation

D79 Other

D8 Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty

D80 General

D81 Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty

D82 Asymmetric and Private Information • Mechanism Design

D83 Search • Learning • Information and Knowledge • Communication • Belief • Unawareness

D84 Expectations • Speculations

D85 Network Formation and Analysis: Theory

D86 Economics of Contract: Theory

D87 Neuroeconomics

D89 Other

D9 Micro-Based Behavioral Economics‡

D90 General‡

D91 Role and Effects of Psychological, Emotional, Social, and Cognitive Factors on Decision Making‡

E. Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics

E00 General

E01 Measurement and Data on National Income and Product Accounts and Wealth • Environmental Accounts

E02 Institutions and the Macroeconomy

E1 General Aggregative Models

E10 General

E11 Marxian • Sraffian • Kaleckian

E12 Keynes • Keynesian • Post-Keynesian

E13 Neoclassical

E14 Austrian • Evolutionary • Institutional

E16 Social Accounting Matrix

E17 Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications

E19 Other

E2 Consumption, Saving, Production, Investment, Labor Markets, and Informal Economy

E20 General

E21 Consumption • Saving • Wealth

E22 Investment • Capital • Intangible Capital • Capacity

E23 Production

E24 Employment • Unemployment • Wages • Intergenerational Income Distribution • Aggregate Human Capital • Aggregate Labor Productivity

E25 Aggregate Factor Income Distribution

E26 Informal Economy • Underground Economy

E27 Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications

E29 Other

E3 Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles

E30 General

E31 Price Level • Inflation • Deflation

E32 Business Fluctuations • Cycles

E37 Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications

E39 Other

E4 Money and Interest Rates

E40 General

E41 Demand for Money

E42 Monetary Systems • Standards • Regimes • Government and the Monetary System • Payment Systems

E43 Interest Rates: Determination, Term Structure, and Effects

E44 Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy

E47 Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications

E49 Other

E5 Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit

E50 General

E51 Money Supply • Credit • Money Multipliers

E52 Monetary Policy

E58 Central Banks and Their Policies

E59 Other

E6 Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook

E60 General

E61 Policy Objectives • Policy Designs and Consistency • Policy Coordination

E62 Fiscal Policy

E63 Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policy • Stabilization • Treasury Policy

E64 Incomes Policy • Price Policy

E65 Studies of Particular Policy Episodes

E66 General Outlook and Conditions

E69 Other

E7 Macro-Based Behavioral Economics‡

E70 General‡

E71 Role and Effects of Psychological, Emotional, Social, and Cognitive Factors on the Macro Economy‡

F. International Economics

F00 General

F01 Global Outlook

F02 International Economic Order and Integration

F1 Trade

F10 General

F11 Neoclassical Models of Trade

F12 Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies • Fragmentation

F13 Trade Policy • International Trade Organizations

F14 Empirical Studies of Trade

F15 Economic Integration

F16 Trade and Labor Market Interactions

F17 Trade Forecasting and Simulation

F18 Trade and Environment

F19 Other

F2 International Factor Movements and International Business

F20 General

F21 International Investment • Long-Term Capital Movements

F22 International Migration

F23 Multinational Firms • International Business

F24 Remittances

F29 Other

F3 International Finance

F30 General

F31 Foreign Exchange

F32 Current Account Adjustment • Short-Term Capital Movements

F33 International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions

F34 International Lending and Debt Problems

F35 Foreign Aid

F36 Financial Aspects of Economic Integration

F37 International Finance Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications

F38 International Financial Policy: Financial Transactions Tax; Capital Controls

F39 Other

F4 Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance

F40 General

F41 Open Economy Macroeconomics

F42 International Policy Coordination and Transmission

F43 Economic Growth of Open Economies

F44 International Business Cycles

F45 Macroeconomic Issues of Monetary Unions

F47 Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications

F49 Other

F5 International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy

F50 General

F51 International Conflicts • Negotiations • Sanctions

F52 National Security • Economic Nationalism

F53 International Agreements and Observance • International Organizations

F54 Colonialism • Imperialism • Postcolonialism

F55 International Institutional Arrangements

F59 Other

F6 Economic Impacts of Globalization

F60 General

F61 Microeconomic Impacts

F62 Macroeconomic Impacts

F63 Economic Development

F64 Environment

F65 Finance

F66 Labor

F68 Policy

F69 Other

G. Financial Economics

G00 General

G01 Financial Crises

G1 General Financial Markets

G10 General

G11 Portfolio Choice • Investment Decisions

G12 Asset Pricing • Trading Volume • Bond Interest Rates

G13 Contingent Pricing • Futures Pricing

G14 Information and Market Efficiency • Event Studies • Insider Trading

G15 International Financial Markets

G17 Financial Forecasting and Simulation

G18 Government Policy and Regulation

G19 Other

G2 Financial Institutions and Services

G20 General

G21 Banks • Depository Institutions • Micro Finance Institutions • Mortgages

G22 Insurance • Insurance Companies • Actuarial Studies

G23 Non-bank Financial Institutions • Financial Instruments • Institutional Investors

G24 Investment Banking • Venture Capital • Brokerage • Ratings and Ratings Agencies

G28 Government Policy and Regulation

G29 Other

G3 Corporate Finance and Governance

G30 General

G31 Capital Budgeting • Fixed Investment and Inventory Studies • Capacity

G32 Financing Policy • Financial Risk and Risk Management • Capital and Ownership Structure • Value of Firms • Goodwill

G33 Bankruptcy • Liquidation

G34 Mergers • Acquisitions • Restructuring • Corporate Governance

G35 Payout Policy

G38 Government Policy and Regulation

G39 Other

G4 Behavioral Finance‡

G40 General‡

G41 Role and Effects of Psychological, Emotional, Social, and Cognitive Factors on Decision Making in Financial Markets‡

H. Public Economics

H00 General

H1 Structure and Scope of Government

H10 General

H11 Structure, Scope, and Performance of Government

H12 Crisis Management

H13 Economics of Eminent Domain • Expropriation • Nationalization

H19 Other

H2 Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue

H20 General

H21 Efficiency • Optimal Taxation

H22 Incidence

H23 Externalities • Redistributive Effects • Environmental Taxes and Subsidies

H24 Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies

H25 Business Taxes and Subsidies

H26 Tax Evasion and Avoidance

H27 Other Sources of Revenue

H29 Other

H3 Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents

H30 General

H31 Household

H32 Firm

H39 Other

H4 Publicly Provided Goods

H40 General

H41 Public Goods

H42 Publicly Provided Private Goods

H43 Project Evaluation • Social Discount Rate

H44 Publicly Provided Goods: Mixed Markets

H49 Other

H5 National Government Expenditures and Related Policies

H50 General

H51 Government Expenditures and Health

H52 Government Expenditures and Education

H53 Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs

H54 Infrastructures • Other Public Investment and Capital Stock

H55 Social Security and Public Pensions

H56 National Security and War

H57 Procurement

H59 Other

H6 National Budget, Deficit, and Debt

H60 General

H61 Budget • Budget Systems

H62 Deficit • Surplus

H63 Debt • Debt Management • Sovereign Debt

H68 Forecasts of Budgets, Deficits, and Debt

H69 Other

H7 State and Local Government • Intergovernmental Relations

H70 General

H71 State and Local Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue

H72 State and Local Budget and Expenditures

H73 Interjurisdictional Differentials and Their Effects

H74 State and Local Borrowing

H75 State and Local Government: Health • Education • Welfare • Public Pensions

H76 State and Local Government: Other Expenditure Categories

H77 Intergovernmental Relations • Federalism • Secession

H79 Other

H8 Miscellaneous Issues

H80 General

H81 Governmental Loans • Loan Guarantees • Credits • Grants • Bailouts

H82 Governmental Property

H83 Public Administration • Public Sector Accounting and Audits

H84 Disaster Aid

H87 International Fiscal Issues • International Public Goods

H89 Other

I. Health, Education, and Welfare

I00 General

I1 Health

I10 General

I11 Analysis of Health Care Markets

I12 Health Behavior

I13 Health Insurance, Public and Private

I14 Health and Inequality

I15 Health and Economic Development

I18 Government Policy • Regulation • Public Health

I19 Other

I2 Education and Research Institutions

I20 General

I21 Analysis of Education

I22 Educational Finance • Financial Aid

I23 Higher Education • Research Institutions

I24 Education and Inequality

I25 Education and Economic Development

I26 Returns to Education

I28 Government Policy

I29 Other

I3 Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty

I30 General

I31 General Welfare, Well-Being

I32 Measurement and Analysis of Poverty

I38 Government Policy • Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs

I39 Other

J. Labor and Demographic Economics

J00 General

J01 Labor Economics: General

J08 Labor Economics Policies

J1 Demographic Economics

J10 General

J11 Demographic Trends, Macroeconomic Effects, and Forecasts

J12 Marriage • Marital Dissolution • Family Structure • Domestic Abuse

J13 Fertility • Family Planning • Child Care • Children • Youth

J14 Economics of the Elderly • Economics of the Handicapped • Non-Labor Market Discrimination

J15 Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants • Non-labor Discrimination

J16 Economics of Gender • Non-labor Discrimination

J17 Value of Life • Forgone Income

J18 Public Policy

J19 Other

J2 Demand and Supply of Labor

J20 General

J21 Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure

J22 Time Allocation and Labor Supply

J23 Labor Demand

J24 Human Capital • Skills • Occupational Choice • Labor Productivity

J26 Retirement • Retirement Policies

J28 Safety • Job Satisfaction • Related Public Policy

J29 Other

J3 Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs

J30 General

J31 Wage Level and Structure • Wage Differentials

J32 Nonwage Labor Costs and Benefits • Retirement Plans • Private Pensions

J33 Compensation Packages • Payment Methods

J38 Public Policy

J39 Other

J4 Particular Labor Markets

J40 General

J41 Labor Contracts

J42 Monopsony • Segmented Labor Markets

J43 Agricultural Labor Markets

J44 Professional Labor Markets • Occupational Licensing

J45 Public Sector Labor Markets

J46 Informal Labor Markets

J47 Coercive Labor Markets

J48 Public Policy

J49 Other

J5 Labor–Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining

J50 General

J51 Trade Unions: Objectives, Structure, and Effects

J52 Dispute Resolution: Strikes, Arbitration, and Mediation • Collective Bargaining

J53 Labor–Management Relations • Industrial Jurisprudence

J54 Producer Cooperatives • Labor Managed Firms • Employee Ownership

J58 Public Policy

J59 Other

J6 Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers

J60 General

J61 Geographic Labor Mobility • Immigrant Workers

J62 Job, Occupational, and Intergenerational Mobility

J63 Turnover • Vacancies • Layoffs

J64 Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search

J65 Unemployment Insurance • Severance Pay • Plant Closings

J68 Public Policy

J69 Other

J7 Labor Discrimination

J70 General

J71 Discrimination

J78 Public Policy

J79 Other

J8 Labor Standards: National and International

J80 General

J81 Working Conditions

J82 Labor Force Composition

J83 Workers' Rights

J88 Public Policy

J89 Other

K. Law and Economics

K00 General

K1 Basic Areas of Law

K10 General

K11 Property Law

K12 Contract Law

K13 Tort Law and Product Liability • Forensic Economics

K14 Criminal Law

K15 Civil Law • Common Law‡

K16 Election Law‡

K19 Other

K2 Regulation and Business Law

K20 General

K21 Antitrust Law

K22 Business and Securities Law

K23 Regulated Industries and Administrative Law

K24 Cyber Law‡

K25 Real Estate Law‡

K29 Other

K3 Other Substantive Areas of Law

K30 General

K31 Labor Law

K32 Energy, Environmental, Health, and Safety Law†

K33 International Law

K34 Tax Law

K35 Personal Bankruptcy Law

K36 Family and Personal Law

K37 Immigration Law

K38 Human Rights Law • Gender Law‡

K39 Other

K4 Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior

K40 General

K41 Litigation Process

K42 Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law

K49 Other

L. Industrial Organization

L00 General

L1 Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance

L10 General

L11 Production, Pricing, and Market Structure • Size Distribution of Firms

L12 Monopoly • Monopolization Strategies

L13 Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets

L14 Transactional Relationships • Contracts and Reputation • Networks

L15 Information and Product Quality • Standardization and Compatibility

L16 Industrial Organization and Macroeconomics: Industrial Structure and Structural Change • Industrial Price Indices

L17 Open Source Products and Markets

L19 Other

L2 Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior

L20 General

L21 Business Objectives of the Firm

L22 Firm Organization and Market Structure

L23 Organization of Production

L24 Contracting Out • Joint Ventures • Technology Licensing

L25 Firm Performance: Size, Diversification, and Scope

L26 Entrepreneurship

L29 Other

L3 Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise

L30 General

L31 Nonprofit Institutions • NGOs • Social Entrepreneurship

L32 Public Enterprises • Public-Private Enterprises

L33 Comparison of Public and Private Enterprises and Nonprofit Institutions • Privatization • Contracting Out

L38 Public Policy

L39 Other

L4 Antitrust Issues and Policies

L40 General

L41 Monopolization • Horizontal Anticompetitive Practices

L42 Vertical Restraints • Resale Price Maintenance • Quantity Discounts

L43 Legal Monopolies and Regulation or Deregulation

L44 Antitrust Policy and Public Enterprises, Nonprofit Institutions, and Professional Organizations

L49 Other

L5 Regulation and Industrial Policy

L50 General

L51 Economics of Regulation

L52 Industrial Policy • Sectoral Planning Methods

L53 Enterprise Policy

L59 Other

L6 Industry Studies: Manufacturing

L60 General

L61 Metals and Metal Products • Cement • Glass • Ceramics

L62 Automobiles • Other Transportation Equipment • Related Parts and Equipment

L63 Microelectronics • Computers • Communications Equipment

L64 Other Machinery • Business Equipment • Armaments

L65 Chemicals • Rubber • Drugs • Biotechnology • Plastics†

L66 Food • Beverages • Cosmetics • Tobacco • Wine and Spirits

L67 Other Consumer Nondurables: Clothing, Textiles, Shoes, and Leather Goods; Household Goods; Sports Equipment

L68 Appliances • Furniture • Other Consumer Durables

L69 Other

L7 Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction

L70 General

L71 Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Hydrocarbon Fuels

L72 Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Other Nonrenewable Resources

L73 Forest Products

L74 Construction

L78 Government Policy

L79 Other

L8 Industry Studies: Services

L80 General

L81 Retail and Wholesale Trade • e-Commerce

L82 Entertainment • Media

L83 Sports • Gambling • Restaurants • Recreation • Tourism

L84 Personal, Professional, and Business Services

L85 Real Estate Services

L86 Information and Internet Services • Computer Software

L87 Postal and Delivery Services

L88 Government Policy

L89 Other

L9 Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities

L90 General

L91 Transportation: General

L92 Railroads and Other Surface Transportation

L93 Air Transportation

L94 Electric Utilities

L95 Gas Utilities • Pipelines • Water Utilities

L96 Telecommunications

L97 Utilities: General

L98 Government Policy

L99 Other

M. Business Administration and Business Economics • Marketing • Accounting • Personnel Economics

M00 General

M1 Business Administration

M10 General

M11 Production Management

M12 Personnel Management • Executives; Executive Compensation

M13 New Firms • Startups

M14 Corporate Culture • Diversity • Social Responsibility

M15 IT Management

M16 International Business Administration

M19 Other

M2 Business Economics

M20 General

M21 Business Economics

M29 Other

M3 Marketing and Advertising

M30 General

M31 Marketing

M37 Advertising

M38 Government Policy and Regulation

M39 Other

M4 Accounting and Auditing

M40 General

M41 Accounting

M42 Auditing

M48 Government Policy and Regulation

M49 Other

M5 Personnel Economics

M50 General

M51 Firm Employment Decisions • Promotions

M52 Compensation and Compensation Methods and Their Effects

M53 Training

M54 Labor Management

M55 Labor Contracting Devices

M59 Other

N. Economic History

N00 General

N01 Development of the Discipline: Historiographical; Sources and Methods

N1 Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics • Industrial Structure • Growth • Fluctuations

N10 General, International, or Comparative

N11 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913

N12 U.S. • Canada: 1913–

N13 Europe: Pre-1913

N14 Europe: 1913–

N15 Asia including Middle East

N16 Latin America • Caribbean

N17 Africa • Oceania

N2 Financial Markets and Institutions

N20 General, International, or Comparative

N21 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913

N22 U.S. • Canada: 1913–

N23 Europe: Pre-1913

N24 Europe: 1913–

N25 Asia including Middle East

N26 Latin America • Caribbean

N27 Africa • Oceania

N3 Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy

N30 General, International, or Comparative

N31 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913

N32 U.S. • Canada: 1913-

N33 Europe: Pre-1913

N34 Europe: 1913-

N35 Asia including Middle East

N36 Latin America • Caribbean

N37 Africa • Oceania

N4 Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation

N40 General, International, or Comparative

N41 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913

N42 U.S. • Canada: 1913–

N43 Europe: Pre-1913

N44 Europe: 1913–

N45 Asia including Middle East

N46 Latin America • Caribbean

N47 Africa • Oceania

N5 Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries

N50 General, International, or Comparative

N51 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913

N52 U.S. • Canada: 1913–

N53 Europe: Pre-1913

N54 Europe: 1913–

N55 Asia including Middle East

N56 Latin America • Caribbean

N57 Africa • Oceania

N6 Manufacturing and Construction

N60 General, International, or Comparative

N61 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913

N62 U.S. • Canada: 1913–

N63 Europe: Pre-1913

N64 Europe: 1913–

N65 Asia including Middle East

N66 Latin America • Caribbean

N67 Africa • Oceania

N7 Transport, Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services

N70 General, International, or Comparative

N71 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913

N72 U.S. • Canada: 1913–

N73 Europe: Pre-1913

N74 Europe: 1913–

N75 Asia including Middle East

N76 Latin America • Caribbean

N77 Africa • Oceania

N8 Micro-Business History

N80 General, International, or Comparative

N81 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913

N82 U.S. • Canada: 1913–

N83 Europe: Pre-1913

N84 Europe: 1913–

N85 Asia including Middle East

N86 Latin America • Caribbean

N87 Africa • Oceania

N9 Regional and Urban History

N90 General, International, or Comparative

N91 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913

N92 U.S. • Canada: 1913–

N93 Europe: Pre-1913

N94 Europe: 1913–

N95 Asia including Middle East

N96 Latin America • Caribbean

N97 Africa • Oceania

O. Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth

O1 Economic Development

O10 General

O11 Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

O12 Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

O13 Agriculture • Natural Resources • Energy • Environment • Other Primary Products

O14 Industrialization • Manufacturing and Service Industries • Choice of Technology

O15 Human Resources • Human Development • Income Distribution • Migration

O16 Financial Markets • Saving and Capital Investment • Corporate Finance and Governance

O17 Formal and Informal Sectors • Shadow Economy • Institutional Arrangements

O18 Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis • Housing • Infrastructure

O19 International Linkages to Development • Role of International Organizations

O2 Development Planning and Policy

O20 General

O21 Planning Models • Planning Policy

O22 Project Analysis

O23 Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development

O24 Trade Policy • Factor Movement Policy • Foreign Exchange Policy

O25 Industrial Policy

O29 Other

O3 Innovation • Research and Development • Technological Change • Intellectual Property Rights

O30 General

O31 Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives

O32 Management of Technological Innovation and R&D

O33 Technological Change: Choices and Consequences • Diffusion Processes

O34 Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital

O35 Social Innovation

O38 Government Policy

O39 Other

O4 Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity

O40 General

O41 One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models

O42 Monetary Growth Models

O43 Institutions and Growth

O44 Environment and Growth

O47 Empirical Studies of Economic Growth • Aggregate Productivity • Cross-Country Output Convergence

O49 Other

O5 Economywide Country Studies

O50 General

O51 U.S. • Canada

O52 Europe

O53 Asia including Middle East

O54 Latin America • Caribbean

O55 Africa

O56 Oceania

O57 Comparative Studies of Countries

P. Economic Systems

P00 General

P1 Capitalist Systems

P10 General

P11 Planning, Coordination, and Reform

P12 Capitalist Enterprises

P13 Cooperative Enterprises

P14 Property Rights

P16 Political Economy

P17 Performance and Prospects

P18 Energy • Environment

P19 Other

P2 Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies

P20 General

P21 Planning, Coordination, and Reform

P22 Prices

P23 Factor and Product Markets • Industry Studies • Population

P24 National Income, Product, and Expenditure • Money • Inflation

P25 Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics

P26 Political Economy • Property Rights

P27 Performance and Prospects

P28 Natural Resources • Energy • Environment

P29 Other

P3 Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions

P30 General

P31 Socialist Enterprises and Their Transitions

P32 Collectives • Communes • Agriculture

P33 International Trade, Finance, Investment, Relations, and Aid

P34 Financial Economics

P35 Public Economics

P36 Consumer Economics • Health • Education and Training • Welfare, Income, Wealth, and Poverty

P37 Legal Institutions • Illegal Behavior

P39 Other

P4 Other Economic Systems

P40 General

P41 Planning, Coordination, and Reform

P42 Productive Enterprises • Factor and Product Markets • Prices • Population

P43 Public Economics • Financial Economics

P44 National Income, Product, and Expenditure • Money • Inflation

P45 International Trade, Finance, Investment, and Aid

P46 Consumer Economics • Health • Education and Training • Welfare, Income, Wealth, and Poverty

P47 Performance and Prospects

P48 Political Economy • Legal Institutions • Property Rights • Natural Resources • Energy • Environment • Regional Studies

P49 Other

P5 Comparative Economic Systems

P50 General

P51 Comparative Analysis of Economic Systems

P52 Comparative Studies of Particular Economies

P59 Other

Q. Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics • Environmental and Ecological Economics

Q00 General

Q01 Sustainable Development

Q02 Commodity Markets

Q1 Agriculture

Q10 General

Q11 Aggregate Supply and Demand Analysis • Prices

Q12 Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets

Q13 Agricultural Markets and Marketing • Cooperatives • Agribusiness

Q14 Agricultural Finance

Q15 Land Ownership and Tenure • Land Reform • Land Use • Irrigation • Agriculture and Environment

Q16 R&D • Agricultural Technology • Biofuels • Agricultural Extension Services

Q17 Agriculture in International Trade

Q18 Agricultural Policy • Food Policy

Q19 Other

Q2 Renewable Resources and Conservation

Q20 General

Q21 Demand and Supply • Prices

Q22 Fishery • Aquaculture

Q23 Forestry

Q24 Land

Q25 Water

Q26 Recreational Aspects of Natural Resources

Q27 Issues in International Trade

Q28 Government Policy

Q29 Other

Q3 Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation

Q30 General

Q31 Demand and Supply • Prices

Q32 Exhaustible Resources and Economic Development

Q33 Resource Booms

Q34 Natural Resources and Domestic and International Conflicts

Q35 Hydrocarbon Resources

Q37 Issues in International Trade

Q38 Government Policy

Q39 Other

Q4 Energy

Q40 General

Q41 Demand and Supply • Prices

Q42 Alternative Energy Sources

Q43 Energy and the Macroeconomy

Q47 Energy Forecasting

Q48 Government Policy

Q49 Other

Q5 Environmental Economics

Q50 General

Q51 Valuation of Environmental Effects

Q52 Pollution Control Adoption and Costs • Distributional Effects • Employment Effects

Q53 Air Pollution • Water Pollution • Noise • Hazardous Waste • Solid Waste • Recycling

Q54 Climate • Natural Disasters and Their Management • Global Warming

Q55 Technological Innovation

Q56 Environment and Development • Environment and Trade • Sustainability • Environmental Accounts and Accounting • Environmental Equity • Population Growth

Q57 Ecological Economics: Ecosystem Services • Biodiversity Conservation • Bioeconomics • Industrial Ecology

Q58 Government Policy

Q59 Other

R. Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics

R00 General

R1 General Regional Economics

R10 General

R11 Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes

R12 Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity

R13 General Equilibrium and Welfare Economic Analysis of Regional Economies

R14 Land Use Patterns

R15 Econometric and Input–Output Models • Other Models

R19 Other

R2 Household Analysis

R20 General

R21 Housing Demand

R22 Other Demand

R23 Regional Migration • Regional Labor Markets • Population • Neighborhood Characteristics

R28 Government Policy

R29 Other

R3 Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location

R30 General

R31 Housing Supply and Markets

R32 Other Spatial Production and Pricing Analysis

R33 Nonagricultural and Nonresidential Real Estate Markets

R38 Government Policy

R39 Other

R4 Transportation Economics

R40 General

R41 Transportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion • Travel Time • Safety and Accidents • Transportation Noise

R42 Government and Private Investment Analysis • Road Maintenance • Transportation Planning

R48 Government Pricing and Policy

R49 Other

R5 Regional Government Analysis

R50 General

R51 Finance in Urban and Rural Economies

R52 Land Use and Other Regulations

R53 Public Facility Location Analysis • Public Investment and Capital Stock

R58 Regional Development Planning and Policy

R59 Other

Y. Miscellaneous Categories

Y1 Data: Tables and Charts

Y10 Data: Tables and Charts

Y2 Introductory Material

Y20 Introductory Material

Y3 Book Reviews (unclassified)

Y30 Book Reviews (unclassified)

Y4 Dissertations (unclassified)

Y40 Dissertations (unclassified)

Y5 Further Reading (unclassified)

Y50 Further Reading (unclassified)

Y6 Excerpts

Y60 Excerpts

Y7 No Author General Discussions

Y70 No Author General Discussions

Y8 Related Disciplines

Y80 Related Disciplines

Y9 Other

Y90 Other

Y91 Pictures and Maps

Y92 Novels, Self-Help Books, etc.

Z. Other Special Topics

Z00 General

Z1 Cultural Economics • Economic Sociology • Economic Anthropology

Z10 General

Z11 Economics of the Arts and Literature

Z12 Religion

Z13 Economic Sociology • Economic Anthropology • Language • Social and Economic Stratification †

Z18 Public Policy

Z19 Other

Z2 Sports Economics

Z20 General

Z21 Industry Studies

Z22 Labor Issues

Z23 Finance

Z28 Policy

Z29 Other

Z3 Tourism Economics

Z30 General

Z31 Industry Studies

Z32 Tourism and Development

Z33 Marketing and Finance

Z38 Policy

Z39 Other