Published in «Migration and social development»3 / 2018
DOI: 10.18334/migration.3.3.41044

Tourism as a hidden form of migration in modern Russia

Borodina Olga Aleksandrovna, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia

Туризм как скрытая форма миграции в современной России - View in Russian

The development of the world tourism industry has been accompanied by migration related to international tourism and international labour migration, which is due to the uneven development of national tourism markets and the simplification of immigration laws in some regions.
Migration related to international tourism is quite common in Europe. There are at least two main subtypes of migrants among this type. Sightseers, or “one-day visitors“ are people visiting the host country for one day. The second subtype of migrants are tourists admitted to the country on a tourist visa (if one is required) for leisure, recreation, holidays, visits to friends and relatives, for the purpose of recovery of health or treatment, or religious pilgrimage, if the duration of their stay does not exceed 12 months. During the 1990s, according to some estimates, about 13 million people from Russia used the services of travel agencies; they visited the Middle East, Eastern and Western Europe, China and a number of other countries. Pull/push migration related to entrepreneurship and trade has become a special type of tourist migration in Eastern Europe. According to some estimates, in 1996 there were 10 to 20 million people in Russia employed in pull/push migration.
This article attempts to analyze incoming tourist migrations, their causes and trends in the Russian Federation. Most foreign trips to the territory of the Russian Federation are carried out by citizens of the former Soviet Union. The largest number of tourists came from Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Poland. The smallest number came from Japan and Spain.
The main reasons for a large visit to these countries is that for most of them there is a visa-free regime, proximity to Russia, political relations, relatively inexpensive tourist tax, the similarity of cultural traditions, the architecture of Russian cities, the possibility of education for foreign citizens, religious purposes, business trips, medical procedures, shopping.
The increase or decline of tourist flows depends on many factors, but recently a significant impact is exerted by such factors as:
• Exchange rate;
* Political situation in the country;
* Leading companies (air carriers, travel agencies, hotels).


dynamics of entry, incoming tourist flow, international tourism, maximization of the economy, tourist migration
Borodina O.A. (2018). Tourism as a hidden form of migration in modern Russia [Turizm kak skrytaya forma migratsii v sovremennoy Rossii]. Migration and social development, 3(3). (in Russian). – doi: 10.18334/migration.3.3.41044.

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